50,000-year-old DNA reveals initial discovery of a Neanderthal family

A 50,000-year-old Neanderthal remains found in a Siberian cave suggests the people were immigrants in small groups, believed to be a family.

Set in a cave in Siberia’s snow-capped Altai Mountains, shattered bones and teeth reveal a family’s first glimpse Neanderthals used to live here. The discovery of a group of adults and children who died while taking refuge in their hunting camps more than 50,000 years ago has provided archaeologists and geneticists with the human genome. Neanderthals The most complete so far.

About 100 kilometers west of Denisovan Cave, there is evidence of an extinct human species known as Denisovans more than a decade ago.However, in the Chagyrskaya cave, where more primate evidence was found in 2019, there are around 90,000 stone tools, bone tools, animal and plant carcasses, and 74 human fossils Neanderthals. The remains of Chagyrskaya Cave are a 51,000 to 59,000 year old bison farm. Pollen and animal remains suggest that the climate was rather cold during the short time Neanderthals occupied Chagilskaya.

50,000-year-old DNA discovery reveals first observations of Neanderthal family

A new analysis, published October 19, takes a deep dive into the human genome Neanderthals In Chagyrskaya and adjacent Okladnikov caves.The study yielded a staggering 13 genomes, nearly double the number of complete human genome sequences Neanderthals existing.While previous work has estimated the size of human communities Neanderthals Based on footprint and site-use patterns, the new genomic analysis directly tests the hypothesis that Neanderthals lived in 20 or fewer biologically related individuals.

50,000-year-old DNA discovery reveals first observations of Neanderthal familyGenetic data from 11 people Neanderthals Fossils found at Chagyrskaya Cave have provided researchers with the first indisputable evidence of people’s family relationships. NeanderthalsThe DNA of two people – an adult male and an adolescent female – suggests a “first-degree relationship,” meaning they could be mother and child, siblings, or father and child.

50,000-year-old DNA discovery reveals first observations of Neanderthal family

But their mismatched mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is typically passed from mother to child, ruled out the first two pairs, prompting the researchers to conduct experiments on fathers and young daughters. The father also shared mtDNA with two other males who may be close relatives.

50,000-year-old DNA discovery reveals first observations of Neanderthal family

There is no evidence that people Neanderthals This nomadic group merged with the nearby Denisovans, although they may have been in the same place at the same time. It is estimated that Denisovans shared a common ancestor that predated humans by perhaps 30,000 years, the researchers wrote. Neanderthals Chagyrskaya lives, and both Chagyrskaya and Okladnikov “have an equal relationship with humans.” Neanderthals Europe is part of the same population Neanderthals. “

Speculation on the cause of death of a group of people NeanderthalsPalaeontologist and lead author Laurits Skov thinks they may have died of starvation after a failed bison hunt, while geographer and co-author Richard Roberts said it was possible. They did not survive a terrible storm.